One Person Can Make A Difference – Building the Coastal Connections Temporary Exhibit at the Britannia Shipyards National Historic Site [Case Story]

This week’s Guest Post is by Brooke Lees, Curator, Britannia Shipyards National Historic Site, Richmond, B.C. Brooke shares the story of how an historic site can mount a meaningful exhibit about the impact of climate change on our oceans with little money but many committed community partners.

The Britannia Shipyards National Historic Site sits on the picturesque Steveston waterfront in Richmond, BC. The site is owned and operated by the City of Richmond, and a small team of dedicated staff are working with partners to complete a multi-phased restoration of the site’s cultural landscape and 14 heritage buildings. Each year, new permanent exhibits open to the public that focus on maritime heritage and the social and living conditions of the multicultural people who worked on the waterfront. Exhibit themes focus on telling the stories of the past, interpreting them as relevant to the present, and commenting on implications for the future.

Exhibit panels - credit Joel Baziuk
Exhibit panels – credit Joel Baziuk

The new temporary exhibit, “Our Coastal Connection,” at the Britannia Shipyards National Historic Site explores our historic ties to our local rivers and west coast environments, and how this has sparked the imagination of many local groups working to celebrate and protect our waters for the future. Over 20 groups are profiled within the exhibit, all of which have dedicated remarkable efforts in areas of water conservation, education, awareness, recycling and entrepreneurship.

The exhibit started with the hope of spreading awareness about the current state of our oceans.

As we go about our daily activities, we forget that our collective actions on land are affecting ecosystems far off shore and out of our direct line of sight,” said Brooke Lees, curator of the exhibit. “A staggering amount of plastic is finding its way into our global oceans every year – 8 million metric tons, which is equivalent in weight to 20,000 fully loaded 747 airplanes. As you can imagine, this is wreaking havoc on marine life and ocean environments. This problem is of course also negatively impacting fish stocks – something vital to our fishing community and the very foundation of the historic fishing village of Steveston.”

“The exhibit outlines the issues, and showcases water stewardship and educational initiatives that began with the efforts of local individuals. Many local people are banding together to implement creative solutions to one of the greatest problems of our time – and this is truly inspiring. These people deserve to be highlighted, and I’m hopeful that their work will inspire others to remember that one person can make a difference, and that every effort at home and in the community can have far reaching impacts.”

Exhibit displays - credit Joel Baziuk
Exhibit displays – credit Joel Baziuk

Although permanent exhibits at Britannia are funded through capital projects, there is no annual budget for temporary exhibits, maintenance or updates.

“In order to continue providing visitors with the latest research and new engaging relevant topics, we have to get creative,” says Brooke. “We work closely with partner groups that provide us with in-kind donations and we do our own research, writing, design and installation.”

Our Coastal Connection was researched, designed and installed with a budget of only $2,000.

“We had the opportunity to work with many enthusiastic people who felt compelled to share their stories and photographs, donate objects for display and provide their research for use in the exhibit.” Brooke explained. “It was a wonderful community effort, and the resulting exhibit is something we are all extremely proud of.”

An open house held on Saturday, June 3 launched the exhibit, with over 250 people in attendance. Visitors explored the exhibit, and met representatives from the Emerald Sea Protection Society, Fraser Riverkeeper and the T. Buck Suzuki Environmental Foundation. These exhibit partner groups captured visitors’ unique water stories, challenged them to be water champions, showed them what’s lurking in the depths under the waves, and gave them a sneak preview of cool new technologies soon to be released.

Exhibit demonstrations - credit Joel Baziuk
Exhibit demonstrations – credit Joel Baziuk

The exhibit open house was engaging, interactive and extremely well received. Visitors were fascinated with the photographs and information demonstrating the amount of plastic affecting our oceans  – many learning about this environmental crisis for the first time. Visitors left the exhibit with a greater understanding of current marine conservation issues, and were inspired to make changes at home to incorporate ‘greener’ habits in their daily routines.

“These ‘aha’ moments are what we are considering a success in terms of exhibit impact,” says Brooke. “And many of our visitors are recording their feelings in our exhibit guest book, complete with pledges of what they promise to do to help.”

Exhibit activity - credit Joel Baziuk
Exhibit activity – credit Joel Baziuk

Our Coastal Connection will be in place for one year, and will reach an audience of over 120,000 visitors to the Britannia Shipyards National Historic Site. Volunteers and staff are excited to welcome the public to the new exhibit, and to inspire people to remember why we love our waters and what we can do to keep our rivers and oceans clean and safe for everyone to enjoy.

For more information about the exhibit, visit or contact or 604-238-8050. Britannia Shipyards National Historic Site is located at 5180 Westwater Drive in Richmond BC.


Meeting the LEED Gold Standard – Markham Museum Collections Building [Case Study]

*Guest Post by Cathy Molloy, Director of Markham Museum, and an Ontario Museum Association Board member.

Completed in 2011, the Markham Museum Collections Building was built as an exhibition hall and storage area for artifacts and archival material. This remarkable building serves as the gateway to the Museum.


Markham Museum connects the history of Markham to today’s new ‘settlers’ by examining our environment and the tools we use to adapt to our changing world. The 25-acre Museum site offers: exhibits, school programs, public programs and events, private event venues and research facilities.

A little background – the Museum is owned and operated by the City of Markham in Ontario, Canada. Markham has an active Sustainability Office . All City facilities are ‘waste free’. Even Museum events are ‘waste free,’ and all vendors and visitors are to use only compostable or recyclable materials.

The Museum also has several gardens and features built with partners, such as native plant gardens, waterless gardens and a windmill to aerate the storm retention pond at the back of the site. Programming at Markham museum is very much focused on sustainability and shared human technologies such as pottery, textile working and food production. So, it was natural that our collection building was designed to fulfill LEED requirements.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design® (LEED) is a rating system that is recognized as the international mark of excellence for green building in over 160 countries. Since 2002, the Canada Green Building Council® (CaGBC) and LEED Canada have been redefining the buildings and communities where Canadians live, work and learn.

The certification program focuses primarily on new, commercial-building projects and based upon a points system. The more points you earn, the higher your rating. Based on the number of points achieved, a project then receives one of four LEED rating levels: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum. LEED-certified buildings are resource efficient. They use less water and energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The Markham Museum met LEED Gold qualification by meeting a number of standards, including:

  • Alternate Transportation
  • Reflective Roof
  • Water Reduction
  • Construction Materials
  • Mechanical Systems
  • Healthy Workplace

Alternate Transportation

The Markham Museum Collections Building is located within close proximity to multiple public transit routes, (Toronto Transit Commission (TTC), Government of Ontario (GO) trains and buses, York Region Transit and others.) In addition to providing bike racks for visitors and employees, the City of Markham encourages carpooling by providing designated carpool spaces close to the main entrance and is an active member of Smart Commute Markham – Richmond Hill.

Reflective Roof

To reduce the impact on the surrounding environment,highly reflective roof materials were selected. The reflective materials provide highly reflective surfaces that will assist in reducing energy demand in the summer and reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect.

Water Reduction

To reduce the potable water demand of the Markham Museum Collections Building, dual flush, 6/4.2L flush water closets, waterless urinals and 1.9 LPM faucets have been provided in public washrooms. As well, the staff shower features a 5.7 LPM shower head. These measures have contributed to a potable water reduction of over 40% against baseline conditions.

Flush choice on toilets

In addition to these measures a 20,000L rain water system for water closet flushing has been installed to greater reduce the potable water demand of the building.

Collectively these installed measures have reduced the water demand of Markham Museum Collections Building 92.72%, saving a total of 276,253L per year against a standard baseline.

Construction Materials

Markham is an ideal location within Southern Ontario to source many construction materials manufactured and extracted within 800 km of the site. These regional materials, such as concrete, reinforcing and structural steel, and landscaping materials account for 30.71% of the materials used to construct and finish the Markham Museum Collections Building.

recycled materials:concrete:steel

Also, recycled materials account for 11.32% of all materials, and of the waste generated during construction and demolition, 88.9% was diverted from landfill.

Mechanical Systems

The Markham Museum Collections Building incorporated a Geothermal Heat Exchange System. This system uses a CFC/HCFC free refrigerant that is pumped through a series of pipes 110m below ground. Once preheated by the earth, the refrigerant is used to preheat the high efficiency water boilers used to supply hot water to the building’s heating coils and heat pumps.

Mechanical Systems

These systems and other energy efficient measures have resulted in an energy cost savings of 56.28% against the base building design.

Healthy workplace

Special emphasis was placed on creating a healthy indoor environment for the current and future employees of the Markham Museum Collections Building. Construction practices that consider indoor air quality were put into place and monitored throughout. This included using only low VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) products to reduce and eliminate harmful off-gassed pollutants.

The Town has also implemented a Green Housekeeping Policy that includes environmentally friendly cleaning methods and cleaning product requirements.


Saskatchewan’s Ecomuseums, Planetary Wellbeing, and Climate Justice – A Symposium Report

Guest post by Douglas Worts, a culture & sustainability specialist with WorldViews Consulting, in Toronto, Canada.

In the late 1960s, two innovators in France’s cultural world devised a novel concept that would turn the notion of ‘museum’ on its head.  If traditional museums are based on centripetal forces that bring together cultural objects, history and people into a single site, then George Rivière and Hugues de Varine’s proposal for a centrifugal variation was revolutionary.

Specifically, they imagined a museum that consisted of a territory, a population, collective memory, elders, heritage and special sites, all held in dynamic relationship through centrifugal forces.

Essentially this approach argued for museums that were woven into the fabric of community as well as the lives of individuals, where people, museum and city/town are one. Theirs was a living, integrated approach to ‘the place of the muses’, as opposed to an institutionalized approach to culture. The name given to this new approach to museums was ‘ecomuseum’.

Over the past 50 years, experiments and variations on the ecomuseum theme have been explored around the world (see Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place – 2nd Edition) – in both rural and urban settings. Some ecomuseums have reinvigorated entire regions – socially, environmentally, culturally, economically. Some of these experiments have become living-heritage sites that are largely geared to tourism.  However,

the ecomuseums most interesting to me have been developed through the work of consciously engaged communities that have roots in heritage, a commitment to the wellbeing of the present and which collectively generate a vision of the future. It is within this context that consideration of climate change, and its negative affect on planetary wellbeing becomes a powerful force.

Glenn Sutter, a curator of human ecology at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum, has been given a mandate to foster ‘community-engaged museums’ (aka ecomuseums) across this prairie province of Canada. In collaboration with the Saskatchewan Museums Association and Heritage Saskatchewan, many efforts are being made to encourage communities themselves to form ecomuseums that will meet their local needs – culturally, socially, economically and environmentally.

In April of 2017, a symposium was organized in Regina to bring people together from many fledgling ecomuseums across the province.  Its purpose was to strengthen the growing network, to share stories and to acquire new tools. Veteran museum consultant and Canadian innovator of ecomuseums, René Rivard, provided a keynote address that reflected on the excitement and impacts of ecomuseums around the world. (René Rivard is also a member of the CMCJ Advisory Group.) Many local people contributed stories about their communities and the ecomuseums with which they are involved.

I was invited to provide a day-long training workshop – which I called “Planning for Cultural Relevance”.  The core of the day revolved around an introduction to two planning tools, called Compass and Pyramid, developed by sustainability consultant, educator and planner, Alan AtKisson – using the fictitious community of Greenburg.

Although this workshop was not focused on ‘climate change’ specifically, it includes processes and concepts that are relevant to those involved in the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice network.

Climate change is one of many challenging outcomes that spring from the shifting cultural realities of our day, combined with our complex globalized world, and all within the biological limits of the Earth’s biosphere. As museums strive to address climate change it is vital to exam and work with the systems environment that is our current reality.

Such an approach necessitates that museums develop and utilize a nontraditional set of processes for:

  • understanding the needs and opportunities of individuals, communities, organizations and the natural environment;
  • generating strategies for active public engagement;
  • formulating a commonly held vision of a future that is possible and sustainable;
  • measuring impacts and changes as a result of humanity’s growth and development.

There remains enormous untapped potential for museums to facilitate cultural wellbeing and cultural impacts across our world.

* Douglas Worts is a culture & sustainability specialist with WorldViews Consulting, in Toronto, Canada. Douglas approaches culture broadly, as ‘how we live our lives’, seeing museums as potential facilitators in forging an emerging ‘culture of sustainability’.  His professional work combines a 35+-year career in museums with over two decades exploring how culture shapes and directs the prospects for global human sustainability. Within Douglas’ museum career, experimental exhibits and audience research, coupled with organizational design and change management, have been of central importance. Systems-thinking is fundamental within his work. Douglas has published, taught and lectured widely on his work.

Linking Cultural Museums & Climate Justice at the AAM Conference

Guest Post by Julieanne Fontana, Public Humanities Master’s Program at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, USA*

The floodwaters from the second (almost) 100-year flood event in the past 16 months were just receding in St. Louis as a group of about 75 museum professionals gathered on May 8, 2017 at the American Alliance of Museums Annual Meeting in St. Louis, Missouri to talk about “Linking Cultural Museums and Environmental Justice.”

I had the honor of being one of the presenters as a part of the International Coalition of Sites of Conscience’s Environmental Justice Network, a group of about 15 culture sites from around the world that are all interested in advancing climate and environmental justice conversations through cultural heritage. Braden Paynter, facilitator of the Environmental Justice Network, introduced the concept that cultural institutions can be activists, and each of my co-panelists and I shared case studies from our work to stimulate discussions and ideas.

Dr. Rosa Cabrera, Director of the Rafael Cintron Ortiz Latino Cultural Center at the University of Illinois at Chicago, explained how to synthesize environmental sustainability, cultural diversity, and social justice through “The Heritage Garden.

Kerry Olson, Chief of Interpretation at Santa Monica National Recreation Area outside of Los Angeles, shared LA Ranger Troca” as a tool to connect nature and urban neighborhoods.

I added my own insights on how community concerns can combine social and environmental activism based on my work with UPP Arts, a grassroots nonprofit that communicates environmental stewardship through art-making. These examples set the framework for group discussions that asked each attendee to relate environmental and climate justice to their own work and their institution’s missions.

At UPP Art’s 10th Urban Pond Procession on May 13, 2017, community members used artistic assets to build stewardship of our shared environment, especially at Mashapaug Pond in Providence, RI (in background).

Climate Conversations Need to Start with Community Assets and Needs

Starting a community dialogue on climate change and environmental justice is all about beginning from a relevant vantage point. For the Environmental Justice Network, that means leading with community assets and needs and avoiding buzzwords like “sustainability” that are ambiguous and may not resonate with people’s daily lives.

We started the participatory part of our session by asking everyone to find photos on their smartphones that told a story about cultural and environmental sustainability. These photos started group discussions about the environmental causes of cultural concerns, like how increased Mississippi River flooding threatens neighborhoods and city infrastructure, and got us all thinking about ways to jointly address both.

After the introduction activity, we asked participants to practice framing environmental discussions beginning with community assets and needs. The questions below can help us all continue to consider these ideas and themes:

Dig into your community and create an interpretive theme:

  • What are the needs and assets of a community that you work with or your own community?

  • How can some of these needs and assets be connected to environmental and climate issues to create a project or public dialogue theme?

Panelist Dr. Rosa Cabrera expanded on these questions using her own work on the Environmental & Climate Justice Dialogue Guide. Community needs are often tangible, like clean water and livable cities, but assets are often intangible and linked to culture. For example, many Latino immigrants in Chicago stop hanging clothes to dry to fit in with American neighbors, but the cultural practice of using clotheslines can help reduce energy use.

Participants from natural history, art, science, and history museums shared programs in their own institutions, and many are already beginning to link their missions to environmental and climate themes.  

Main Takeaways

The session lasted just an hour and a half, but that was enough time to get us all making new connections! My main takeaways – and the ones I want to share with you are:

  1. Many of our socially-expressed problems have environmental roots. We need to link social and environmental justice movements to be effective activists.

  2. Be an asset to your community. If buzzwords like sustainability or climate change are creating barriers, be creative and use the institution’s mission to approach these concerns from non-environmental entry points.

  3. Keeping building a network of ideas and share with others. This conversation is a starting point!

* Julieanne Fontana is a student in the Public Humanities Master’s Program at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, where she is studying the intersection of public history and environmental justice. Julieanne currently works as a Climate Heritage Intern with US/ICOMOS and as a Communications Assistant for UPP Arts, an arts-based environmental nonprofit. She has previous experience working with the US National Park Service and with multiple historic sites in New England.

What’s Next for the Coalition? Capitalizing on Momentum to Create Action

Guest Post by Meaghan Patterson, Executive Director/CEO, Alberta Museums Association*

Questions about climate justice abound both for the Coalition and all museum professionals, and will fuel the work of our sector as we grapple with this issue.

How do we use our platforms to meaningfully engage the general public in the topic of climate change? How can we, as representatives of trusted institutions, become exemplary not only through the stories that we tell, but through our operational policies and philosophies? Through what means can we create a network of shared resources and experiences so that others can visualize ways they can affect incremental change?

On April 7, 2017, at the Canadian Museums Association’s Annual Conference, the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice invited delegates and museum professionals to gather, discuss, share, and generate ideas for ways in which museums, as trusted institutions, can address issues of climate change. Over forty people, representing diversities of geography, institutional size, scope, and governance, interest level, and career stage participated in an animated and productive conversation around this topic. Notes from the session were recorded and distributed to the Coalition members and other interested individuals through social media and a publicly available summary provides context to anyone researching the group. The ideas captured in these notes will help direct and inform the work of the Coalition and provide a fascinating cross-section of work happening in institutions around our country.

The conversation began with an introduction to the goals and mandate of the Coalition as well as a grounding overview by Dr. Robert Janes on the impact of climate change on our ecosystem. From there, delegates actively engaged in a participatory conversation around successes to date, how museums and cultural organizations could enhance efforts around climate change awareness, mitigation, and resilience, and finally a general discussion that addressed some of the institutional and perceptional barriers we encounter as well as tangible suggestions for the Coalition to pursue moving forward.

The breadth of initiatives already underway in Canadian institutions was inspiring and as the discussion progressed, ideas were continuously generated, expanded upon, and deepened.

It truly demonstrated the potential of a committed like-minded group of individuals working toward a common goal.

The overall tone of the conversation was one of optimism, passion, and dedication. Individuals around the room shared successes in exhibitions (both the construction and the content), increasing operational efficiencies, and educational programming. Those present understood the privilege of working in such creative and free environments as museums and, as Colleen Dilenschneider writes, the importance of capitalizing on the public’s trust in museums as institutions of objectivity and knowledge—not of neutrality—as a way to embark on new ways of thinking and being.

Building on Joy Davis’ “Agentic Professionals”, we cannot lose sight of our individual agency and its ability to create organizational change. As a group, our voices hold more weight and our impact is easier to see, hear, and feel.

With the momentum and passion I witnessed in April, the Coalition can inspire fundamental and lasting shifts in the ways museums engage with their audiences, their collections, their spaces, and their stakeholders around climate change. I am motivated by the conversations, inspired by the work of others, and excited to help facilitate these capacity building initiatives across Alberta.

* Meaghan Patterson has been the Executive Director / CEO of the Alberta Museums Association since 2014. Through her work at the AMA, she is passionate about the significant role museums can play in the betterment of society and the importance of building capacity for long term sustainability in all its forms. She is a mom of two fiercely independent girls and attempts to instill the importance of strong, connected communities and sense of place into all aspects of her life.

The Elephant in the Room – Museums Can’t Risk Doing Anything That Might Alienate Their Audience

In this guest post, Robert R. Janes, Co-Chair of the Coalition, writes more about climate change and museums and the founding of the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice …

We have now passed the milestone level of 400 parts per million of climate-warming carbon in the atmosphere… for the first time in human existence – without even an outcry by the citizenry.[1] The 400ppm threshold is a dire wake-up call, and our profound, global challenge is to reduce our carbon emissions by 80% by 2050, in order to forestall the worst impacts of climate disruption. Judging by the results so far, we are failing miserably.

B Janes at Climate Change session

Why is the museum community reluctant to address this issue?  I suggest that it lies in the claim of “neutrality,” There is a widely-held belief that museums must protect their neutrality, lest they fall prey to bias and special interest groups.[2] The unspoken argument is that museums cannot risk doing anything that might alienate their audiences or sponsors, real or potential.

This claim of neutrality has conspired to create a magical belief that is now the stock-in-trade of most museum workers.[3] This belief is that museums may abstain from addressing societal issues and aspirations, because they have complex histories and unique missions which absolve them from greater accountability.

Three Reasons to Challenge Neutrality

Why should museum workers part company with the time-honoured protection of neutrality?

The first reason is that each of us is a sentient being on planet earth, and each of us has a personal responsibility to confront the reality of climate change and protect the planet upon which we depend.

Second, we know as museum workers that education is a core mission of museums, but what sort of education is appropriate and necessary now? What we actually need are museums that identify and challenge the myths and misperceptions that threaten us – such as the false belief that continuous economic growth and consumption can continue.

The third reason for rejecting neutrality is that each of us is part of a family – a son, a daughter, a brother, a sister, parent or grandparent. With this in mind,

“…for how long would we like our family to continue? If the next generation matters to us, and the children born to it do as well, then what about their children’s children?” [4]

 Unique Characteristics of Museums

In addition to their larger view of time, museums are uniquely qualified to embrace climate change and other critical issues, because of several unique characteristics:

  • They are grounded in their communities and are expressions of locality;
  • They are a bridge between science and culture;
  • They bear witness by assembling evidence and knowledge, and making things known;
  • They are seed banks of sustainable living practices that have guided our species for millennia;
  • They are some of the most free and creative work environments in the world.

In short, there are no other organizations with this singular combination of historical consciousness, sense of place, public accessibility, and unprecedented public trust.

How, then, can these precious qualities translate into concrete action? Here are three simple initiatives:

  1. Tell stories and educate – Museums tell the stories of the natural and cultural world – tell your visitors how climate change and disruption came to be.
  1. Second, with unbridled consumption as the cause of climate change, it is imperative that we reduce our individual consumption. Museums can readily assist with this task through information, dialogue and advocacy.
  1. A third initiative is to develop an Advocacy Policy for your museum, to help nurture and strengthen a broader vision. This policy would delineate what issues are important and how your museum will respond when confronted with moral and civic challenges, such as climate change.[5]

This leads me to one unavoidable conclusion. Individual museum efforts to address climate change are laudable and essential, but they are not enough. Nothing less than a global museum movement is now required, and the resources of the world’s 55,000 museums must not only be mobilized – they must also be anchored in a new story.

A New Story

We all agree that museums exist to tell stories—about people, communities, and nations — but who is telling the story of the twenty-first century? Corporations and governments are, but it is the story of ceaseless economic growth. The rhetoric is agonizingly familiar and destructive – consumption means happiness; economic inequality is unavoidable, and rampant environmental damage is regrettable.[6] Although we know that this story is false, it is the predominate story in our public lives and it defines our common future. This story, however, is destroying the planet upon which we depend.

Humanity needs a new story; museums need a new story.[7] We must move beyond the doomed economy of industrial growth to the recognition that the connection between individuals, communities, and nature is the key to our well-being.[8] It is incumbent on all museums to help envision and create this new narrative with their communities – using their unique skills and perspectives.

These issues and the thinking behind them lead to the formation of the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice.


[1] Romm, J. “Into the Valley of Death Rode the 600, Into the Valley of 400 PPM Rode the 7 Billion.” Available online: – May 5, 2013

[2] Janes, R.R. (2009) Museums in a Troubled World: Renewal, Irrelevance or Collapse? London and New York: Routledge, p.59.

[3] McKenzie, B. Next after MuseumNext, The Learning Planet Blog. Available online:

[4] Macy, J. and Johnstone, C. (2012) Active Hope: How to Face the Mess We’re in without Going Crazy, Novato, CA: New World Library, p. 142.

[5] Museum 2.0 “Does Your Museum Have An Advocacy Policy?” Available online; http :// – January 16, 2016

[6] Korten, D. (2014) “Change the Story, Change the Future: A Living Economy for a Living Earth.” Presentation at the Praxis Peace Institute Conference, San Francisco, California, October 7, p. 2. Available online:

[7] Korten, D. (2014) “Change the Story, Change the Future: A Living Economy for a Living Earth.” Presentation at the Praxis Peace Institute Conference, San Francisco, California, October 7, p.4.Available online:

[8] Macy, J. and Johnstone, C. (2012) Active Hope: How to Face the Mess We’re in without Going Crazy, Novato, CA: New World Library, p. 142.