Meeting the LEED Gold Standard – Markham Museum Collections Building [Case Study]

*Guest Post by Cathy Molloy, Director of Markham Museum, and an Ontario Museum Association Board member.

Completed in 2011, the Markham Museum Collections Building was built as an exhibition hall and storage area for artifacts and archival material. This remarkable building serves as the gateway to the Museum.


Markham Museum connects the history of Markham to today’s new ‘settlers’ by examining our environment and the tools we use to adapt to our changing world. The 25-acre Museum site offers: exhibits, school programs, public programs and events, private event venues and research facilities.

A little background – the Museum is owned and operated by the City of Markham in Ontario, Canada. Markham has an active Sustainability Office . All City facilities are ‘waste free’. Even Museum events are ‘waste free,’ and all vendors and visitors are to use only compostable or recyclable materials.

The Museum also has several gardens and features built with partners, such as native plant gardens, waterless gardens and a windmill to aerate the storm retention pond at the back of the site. Programming at Markham museum is very much focused on sustainability and shared human technologies such as pottery, textile working and food production. So, it was natural that our collection building was designed to fulfill LEED requirements.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design® (LEED) is a rating system that is recognized as the international mark of excellence for green building in over 160 countries. Since 2002, the Canada Green Building Council® (CaGBC) and LEED Canada have been redefining the buildings and communities where Canadians live, work and learn.

The certification program focuses primarily on new, commercial-building projects and based upon a points system. The more points you earn, the higher your rating. Based on the number of points achieved, a project then receives one of four LEED rating levels: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum. LEED-certified buildings are resource efficient. They use less water and energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The Markham Museum met LEED Gold qualification by meeting a number of standards, including:

  • Alternate Transportation
  • Reflective Roof
  • Water Reduction
  • Construction Materials
  • Mechanical Systems
  • Healthy Workplace

Alternate Transportation

The Markham Museum Collections Building is located within close proximity to multiple public transit routes, (Toronto Transit Commission (TTC), Government of Ontario (GO) trains and buses, York Region Transit and others.) In addition to providing bike racks for visitors and employees, the City of Markham encourages carpooling by providing designated carpool spaces close to the main entrance and is an active member of Smart Commute Markham – Richmond Hill.

Reflective Roof

To reduce the impact on the surrounding environment,highly reflective roof materials were selected. The reflective materials provide highly reflective surfaces that will assist in reducing energy demand in the summer and reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect.

Water Reduction

To reduce the potable water demand of the Markham Museum Collections Building, dual flush, 6/4.2L flush water closets, waterless urinals and 1.9 LPM faucets have been provided in public washrooms. As well, the staff shower features a 5.7 LPM shower head. These measures have contributed to a potable water reduction of over 40% against baseline conditions.

Flush choice on toilets

In addition to these measures a 20,000L rain water system for water closet flushing has been installed to greater reduce the potable water demand of the building.

Collectively these installed measures have reduced the water demand of Markham Museum Collections Building 92.72%, saving a total of 276,253L per year against a standard baseline.

Construction Materials

Markham is an ideal location within Southern Ontario to source many construction materials manufactured and extracted within 800 km of the site. These regional materials, such as concrete, reinforcing and structural steel, and landscaping materials account for 30.71% of the materials used to construct and finish the Markham Museum Collections Building.

recycled materials:concrete:steel

Also, recycled materials account for 11.32% of all materials, and of the waste generated during construction and demolition, 88.9% was diverted from landfill.

Mechanical Systems

The Markham Museum Collections Building incorporated a Geothermal Heat Exchange System. This system uses a CFC/HCFC free refrigerant that is pumped through a series of pipes 110m below ground. Once preheated by the earth, the refrigerant is used to preheat the high efficiency water boilers used to supply hot water to the building’s heating coils and heat pumps.

Mechanical Systems

These systems and other energy efficient measures have resulted in an energy cost savings of 56.28% against the base building design.

Healthy workplace

Special emphasis was placed on creating a healthy indoor environment for the current and future employees of the Markham Museum Collections Building. Construction practices that consider indoor air quality were put into place and monitored throughout. This included using only low VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) products to reduce and eliminate harmful off-gassed pollutants.

The Town has also implemented a Green Housekeeping Policy that includes environmentally friendly cleaning methods and cleaning product requirements.


Embracing Change: Museums and Activism

Guest Post by Naomi Grattan. Naomi teaches museum management for the University of Calgary and the Alberta Museums Association.


The concept of activist museums emerged as one of the strongest themes at MuseumNext, 2016, a global conference on the future of museums. Created in 2009, according to its founder Jim Richardson, “MuseumNext came out the shifting technological landscape of the first decade of the 21st century. Digital media was [sic] transforming society and shifting audience expectations and we saw that museums needed to embrace change, or risk extinction” (MuseumNext, 2016, section 1). He explained that

delegates are interested in the power that cultural institutions have to inform the public about challenging issues, how museums add to the political power of a city and how we can ensure that culture is open to all (MuseumNext, 2016, section 7).

A move to an activist position is almost a complete reversal of the traditional museum model in which an institutional voice of authority was held up as the ideal (Anderson, 2012, p. 3). Janes (2009) described this as “authoritative neutrality” (p. 59) and exposed the fallacy at the heart of it: when museums avoid taking risks because they might antagonize sponsors or corporate partners, they are, in effect taking a position in line with corporate values and beliefs, and is therefore not neutral.

Janes (2009) went on to acknowledge that moving beyond the so-called “neutral” position “requires judgement and risk-taking, and the potential for both enhancing the public good, or abusing it, lie dormant in every opportunity” (p. 59). In other words, it is impossible to take a neutral position when presenting topics and objects to the public, so transparency, clear values and careful planning become critical. An activist model is a direct way to align with a specific sector or community, by taking a clear stand on an issue and actively working with community towards a shared outcome. Read more from Janes in his blog post The Elephant in the Room.

Activist Museums & Groups

The Natural History Museum (Natural History Museum, n.d., About), a project of Not an Alternative (a New York based non-profit), strives to affect public discourse through art, activism and theory and is a good example of an activist museum. Created in 2014, the Natural History Museum is a mobile museum that takes a position on environmental science, making a point of examining the socio-political forces that shape nature. In partnership with other museums, it works to:

reframe the past to save the future . . . [by] partnering with museums to develop programs that help make the subjects of science and natural history more relevant to the day to day lives of the communities they serve . . .[its] programs pick up where traditional exhibits leave off, by connecting static displays to pressing contemporary concerns and world events. (Natural History Museum, n.d., About)

Among its activities, the Natural History Museum wrote an “Open letter to museums from members of the scientific community,” signed by 148 scientists. It is significant to note that in January 2016 David Koch stepped down from the board of the American Museum of Natural History, although he remains on the advisory board of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Yuhas, 2016, para. 1).

The rise of activist museums intersects with the rise of other activist groups also focused on museums, such as Liberate Tate, which calls specifically on the U.K.’s Tate Museum  to take a leadership role in society on the global issue of climate change by abandoning its sponsorship support from the oil company British Petroleum (BP).

There are many models for the ways in which museums can become more connected to community—whether through community building, co-creation, participation, or activism—but the theme is clear: museums must operate in relationship to the world in which they exist.


Anderson, G. (Ed.). (2012). Reinventing the museum: The evolving conversation on the paradigm shift. (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: AltaMira.

Janes, R. (2009). Museums in a troubled world. Renewal, irrelevance, or collapse? Oxon, UK: Routledge.

MuseumNext. (2016, July 4). A short interview with MuseumNext founder Jim Richardson. Public Art Magazine Korea. Retrieved from

Natural History Museum, the. (n.d.). About. Retrieved from

Natural History Museum, the. (2015, March 24). An open letter to museums from members of the scientific community. Retrieved from

Yuhas, A. (2016, January 21). David Koch steps down from board of New York science museum. The Guardian. Retrieved from

*Naomi Grattan has worked in and around museums for most of the last 17 years, sontributing to four cultural capital projects, and recently completing her MA in Leadership at Royal Roads University, which focused on museum leadership development for the sector in partnership with the Canadian Museums Association.  Her thesis is available online here. She teaches museum management for the University of Calgary and the Alberta Museums Association. You can reach her at:


Saskatchewan’s Ecomuseums, Planetary Wellbeing, and Climate Justice – A Symposium Report

Guest post by Douglas Worts, a culture & sustainability specialist with WorldViews Consulting, in Toronto, Canada.

In the late 1960s, two innovators in France’s cultural world devised a novel concept that would turn the notion of ‘museum’ on its head.  If traditional museums are based on centripetal forces that bring together cultural objects, history and people into a single site, then George Rivière and Hugues de Varine’s proposal for a centrifugal variation was revolutionary.

Specifically, they imagined a museum that consisted of a territory, a population, collective memory, elders, heritage and special sites, all held in dynamic relationship through centrifugal forces.

Essentially this approach argued for museums that were woven into the fabric of community as well as the lives of individuals, where people, museum and city/town are one. Theirs was a living, integrated approach to ‘the place of the muses’, as opposed to an institutionalized approach to culture. The name given to this new approach to museums was ‘ecomuseum’.

Over the past 50 years, experiments and variations on the ecomuseum theme have been explored around the world (see Peter Davis, Ecomuseums: A Sense of Place – 2nd Edition) – in both rural and urban settings. Some ecomuseums have reinvigorated entire regions – socially, environmentally, culturally, economically. Some of these experiments have become living-heritage sites that are largely geared to tourism.  However,

the ecomuseums most interesting to me have been developed through the work of consciously engaged communities that have roots in heritage, a commitment to the wellbeing of the present and which collectively generate a vision of the future. It is within this context that consideration of climate change, and its negative affect on planetary wellbeing becomes a powerful force.

Glenn Sutter, a curator of human ecology at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum, has been given a mandate to foster ‘community-engaged museums’ (aka ecomuseums) across this prairie province of Canada. In collaboration with the Saskatchewan Museums Association and Heritage Saskatchewan, many efforts are being made to encourage communities themselves to form ecomuseums that will meet their local needs – culturally, socially, economically and environmentally.

In April of 2017, a symposium was organized in Regina to bring people together from many fledgling ecomuseums across the province.  Its purpose was to strengthen the growing network, to share stories and to acquire new tools. Veteran museum consultant and Canadian innovator of ecomuseums, René Rivard, provided a keynote address that reflected on the excitement and impacts of ecomuseums around the world. (René Rivard is also a member of the CMCJ Advisory Group.) Many local people contributed stories about their communities and the ecomuseums with which they are involved.

I was invited to provide a day-long training workshop – which I called “Planning for Cultural Relevance”.  The core of the day revolved around an introduction to two planning tools, called Compass and Pyramid, developed by sustainability consultant, educator and planner, Alan AtKisson – using the fictitious community of Greenburg.

Although this workshop was not focused on ‘climate change’ specifically, it includes processes and concepts that are relevant to those involved in the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice network.

Climate change is one of many challenging outcomes that spring from the shifting cultural realities of our day, combined with our complex globalized world, and all within the biological limits of the Earth’s biosphere. As museums strive to address climate change it is vital to exam and work with the systems environment that is our current reality.

Such an approach necessitates that museums develop and utilize a nontraditional set of processes for:

  • understanding the needs and opportunities of individuals, communities, organizations and the natural environment;
  • generating strategies for active public engagement;
  • formulating a commonly held vision of a future that is possible and sustainable;
  • measuring impacts and changes as a result of humanity’s growth and development.

There remains enormous untapped potential for museums to facilitate cultural wellbeing and cultural impacts across our world.

* Douglas Worts is a culture & sustainability specialist with WorldViews Consulting, in Toronto, Canada. Douglas approaches culture broadly, as ‘how we live our lives’, seeing museums as potential facilitators in forging an emerging ‘culture of sustainability’.  His professional work combines a 35+-year career in museums with over two decades exploring how culture shapes and directs the prospects for global human sustainability. Within Douglas’ museum career, experimental exhibits and audience research, coupled with organizational design and change management, have been of central importance. Systems-thinking is fundamental within his work. Douglas has published, taught and lectured widely on his work.

Linking Cultural Museums & Climate Justice at the AAM Conference

Guest Post by Julieanne Fontana, Public Humanities Master’s Program at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, USA*

The floodwaters from the second (almost) 100-year flood event in the past 16 months were just receding in St. Louis as a group of about 75 museum professionals gathered on May 8, 2017 at the American Alliance of Museums Annual Meeting in St. Louis, Missouri to talk about “Linking Cultural Museums and Environmental Justice.”

I had the honor of being one of the presenters as a part of the International Coalition of Sites of Conscience’s Environmental Justice Network, a group of about 15 culture sites from around the world that are all interested in advancing climate and environmental justice conversations through cultural heritage. Braden Paynter, facilitator of the Environmental Justice Network, introduced the concept that cultural institutions can be activists, and each of my co-panelists and I shared case studies from our work to stimulate discussions and ideas.

Dr. Rosa Cabrera, Director of the Rafael Cintron Ortiz Latino Cultural Center at the University of Illinois at Chicago, explained how to synthesize environmental sustainability, cultural diversity, and social justice through “The Heritage Garden.

Kerry Olson, Chief of Interpretation at Santa Monica National Recreation Area outside of Los Angeles, shared LA Ranger Troca” as a tool to connect nature and urban neighborhoods.

I added my own insights on how community concerns can combine social and environmental activism based on my work with UPP Arts, a grassroots nonprofit that communicates environmental stewardship through art-making. These examples set the framework for group discussions that asked each attendee to relate environmental and climate justice to their own work and their institution’s missions.

At UPP Art’s 10th Urban Pond Procession on May 13, 2017, community members used artistic assets to build stewardship of our shared environment, especially at Mashapaug Pond in Providence, RI (in background).

Climate Conversations Need to Start with Community Assets and Needs

Starting a community dialogue on climate change and environmental justice is all about beginning from a relevant vantage point. For the Environmental Justice Network, that means leading with community assets and needs and avoiding buzzwords like “sustainability” that are ambiguous and may not resonate with people’s daily lives.

We started the participatory part of our session by asking everyone to find photos on their smartphones that told a story about cultural and environmental sustainability. These photos started group discussions about the environmental causes of cultural concerns, like how increased Mississippi River flooding threatens neighborhoods and city infrastructure, and got us all thinking about ways to jointly address both.

After the introduction activity, we asked participants to practice framing environmental discussions beginning with community assets and needs. The questions below can help us all continue to consider these ideas and themes:

Dig into your community and create an interpretive theme:

  • What are the needs and assets of a community that you work with or your own community?

  • How can some of these needs and assets be connected to environmental and climate issues to create a project or public dialogue theme?

Panelist Dr. Rosa Cabrera expanded on these questions using her own work on the Environmental & Climate Justice Dialogue Guide. Community needs are often tangible, like clean water and livable cities, but assets are often intangible and linked to culture. For example, many Latino immigrants in Chicago stop hanging clothes to dry to fit in with American neighbors, but the cultural practice of using clotheslines can help reduce energy use.

Participants from natural history, art, science, and history museums shared programs in their own institutions, and many are already beginning to link their missions to environmental and climate themes.  

Main Takeaways

The session lasted just an hour and a half, but that was enough time to get us all making new connections! My main takeaways – and the ones I want to share with you are:

  1. Many of our socially-expressed problems have environmental roots. We need to link social and environmental justice movements to be effective activists.

  2. Be an asset to your community. If buzzwords like sustainability or climate change are creating barriers, be creative and use the institution’s mission to approach these concerns from non-environmental entry points.

  3. Keeping building a network of ideas and share with others. This conversation is a starting point!

* Julieanne Fontana is a student in the Public Humanities Master’s Program at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, where she is studying the intersection of public history and environmental justice. Julieanne currently works as a Climate Heritage Intern with US/ICOMOS and as a Communications Assistant for UPP Arts, an arts-based environmental nonprofit. She has previous experience working with the US National Park Service and with multiple historic sites in New England.

How Can My Museum Champion Climate Justice? Step 1 – Develop an Advocacy Policy

Robert Janes told us in an earlier post about three simple steps that museums might take to begin to embrace issues like climate change:

  1. Tell stories and educate – Museums tell the stories of the natural and cultural world – tell your visitors how climate change and disruption came to be.

  2. Second, with unbridled consumption as the cause of climate change, it is imperative that we reduce our individual consumption. …

  3. A third initiative is to develop an Advocacy Policy for your museum …

All spoke to me. But I was particularly intrigued with the notion of an Advocacy Policy. What is that? Has any museum developed one? Can a museum advocate for climate justice?

Nina Simon & MAH Advocacy Policy

Nina Simon has actually written two blog posts on this topic. In the first, entitled Does Your Institution Have an Advocacy Policy, she talks about the reasons behind her institution’s desire to develop this policy.

Ultimately, I decided we couldn’t sign [a petition] – not because it was the necessarily the wrong thing to do, but because we didn’t have any kind of policy beyond directorial discretion to decide when it might be appropriate to take a political stand as an institution

But especially useful is Nina Simon’s second post on the topic, Advocacy Policy, Part Two – And Why Now is an Especially Good Time to Create One. In this one, she talks about how the Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History created their policy and the surprises they encountered. And she, ever generous, shares their Advocacy Policy

Here it is

And here’s another from The Association of Maine Archives and Museums

In Canada, the Alberta Board Development Program offers a useful Advocacy Bulletin that covers the wherefores and whys of advocacy in some detail.

National museums associations like the American Alliance of Museums and the Canadian Museums Association also offer advocacy resources. These, although useful, tend to be oriented more toward persuading government funders of the usefulness of museums to society than to championing fundamental change.

The development of an Advocacy Policy like that of the Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History will, as Bob Janes writes, help nurture and strengthen a broader vision. Because, when the world pushes up against your doors and asks for your help – whether you are in Weyburn, Saskatchewan or Toronto, Ontario – when you are confronted with moral and civic challenges, like climate change, what will you do? What will your colleagues do? What will your museum do?

What’s Next for the Coalition? Capitalizing on Momentum to Create Action

Guest Post by Meaghan Patterson, Executive Director/CEO, Alberta Museums Association*

Questions about climate justice abound both for the Coalition and all museum professionals, and will fuel the work of our sector as we grapple with this issue.

How do we use our platforms to meaningfully engage the general public in the topic of climate change? How can we, as representatives of trusted institutions, become exemplary not only through the stories that we tell, but through our operational policies and philosophies? Through what means can we create a network of shared resources and experiences so that others can visualize ways they can affect incremental change?

On April 7, 2017, at the Canadian Museums Association’s Annual Conference, the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice invited delegates and museum professionals to gather, discuss, share, and generate ideas for ways in which museums, as trusted institutions, can address issues of climate change. Over forty people, representing diversities of geography, institutional size, scope, and governance, interest level, and career stage participated in an animated and productive conversation around this topic. Notes from the session were recorded and distributed to the Coalition members and other interested individuals through social media and a publicly available summary provides context to anyone researching the group. The ideas captured in these notes will help direct and inform the work of the Coalition and provide a fascinating cross-section of work happening in institutions around our country.

The conversation began with an introduction to the goals and mandate of the Coalition as well as a grounding overview by Dr. Robert Janes on the impact of climate change on our ecosystem. From there, delegates actively engaged in a participatory conversation around successes to date, how museums and cultural organizations could enhance efforts around climate change awareness, mitigation, and resilience, and finally a general discussion that addressed some of the institutional and perceptional barriers we encounter as well as tangible suggestions for the Coalition to pursue moving forward.

The breadth of initiatives already underway in Canadian institutions was inspiring and as the discussion progressed, ideas were continuously generated, expanded upon, and deepened.

It truly demonstrated the potential of a committed like-minded group of individuals working toward a common goal.

The overall tone of the conversation was one of optimism, passion, and dedication. Individuals around the room shared successes in exhibitions (both the construction and the content), increasing operational efficiencies, and educational programming. Those present understood the privilege of working in such creative and free environments as museums and, as Colleen Dilenschneider writes, the importance of capitalizing on the public’s trust in museums as institutions of objectivity and knowledge—not of neutrality—as a way to embark on new ways of thinking and being.

Building on Joy Davis’ “Agentic Professionals”, we cannot lose sight of our individual agency and its ability to create organizational change. As a group, our voices hold more weight and our impact is easier to see, hear, and feel.

With the momentum and passion I witnessed in April, the Coalition can inspire fundamental and lasting shifts in the ways museums engage with their audiences, their collections, their spaces, and their stakeholders around climate change. I am motivated by the conversations, inspired by the work of others, and excited to help facilitate these capacity building initiatives across Alberta.

* Meaghan Patterson has been the Executive Director / CEO of the Alberta Museums Association since 2014. Through her work at the AMA, she is passionate about the significant role museums can play in the betterment of society and the importance of building capacity for long term sustainability in all its forms. She is a mom of two fiercely independent girls and attempts to instill the importance of strong, connected communities and sense of place into all aspects of her life.

Agentic Professionals: How individual museum workers can champion climate justice

Guest Post by Joy Davis, PhD CAHP.*  Joy is a member of the Advisory Group of the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice.

When Coalition organizers first met, we had a brief discussion as to whether this initiative would be better named Coalition for Museum, Gallery and Cultural Heritage Professionals and Climate Justice or Coalition for Museum Workers Concerned about Climate Justice. After all people join as individuals, not as museums.

Joy Davis
Joy in the Muskwa Kechika Conservation Area in northern BC, August 2016

But the enduring challenge of agreeing on a common name for all the individuals affiliated with museums, along with the overriding agreement that the Coalition aspires to be supportive of museums and related institutions in using their capacity to build understanding of climate change and its impacts, led back to a name that highlights the institution (inclusively defined) rather than the individual.

This discussion highlights an interesting dynamic at play across the museum world. We talk about museums as if they are somehow separate from the many people who bring them to life:

“museums should be more socially responsible; museums should be more engaged with community; museums should shape positive change.”

But museums can only respond to change when the individuals involved champion new ideas, approaches and practices. This requires exercising personal and professional agency, regardless of where the individuals are positioned within the museum world.

So what is agency?

Renowned psychologist Albert Bandura helps us understand the powerful role of individuals within and around institutions in saying that “to be an agent is to intentionally make things happen by one’s actions” (p. 2). He might have been thinking of members of this Coalition when he went on to say that if individuals are to successfully negotiate this increasingly complex world, they have to

“make good judgments about their capabilities, anticipate the probable effects of different events and courses of action, size up…opportunities and constraints, and regulate their behavior accordingly.”

Albert Bandura, Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective (p. 3).

Bandura suggests that agency has the following core features. It is easy to see how each of these qualities can be important in enabling individuals to shift and shape museums’ support for climate justice:

  • Intentionality:  a proactive commitment and plan of action to make something happen.
  • Forethought:  setting achievable goals and expectations, anticipating implications, and formulating a course of action that helps to motivate and guide actions.
  • Self-reactiveness:  self-regulatory processes that enable the individual to monitor his/her behaviour in the context of environmental (read ‘museum’) conditions and to align performance with morals, goals and standards.
  • Self-reflectiveness:  the metacognitive capacity to reflect upon oneself and the adequacy of one’s knowledge and abilities.

A big part of self-reflectiveness is perceived self-efficacy or the sense of whether or not you have the capacity to influence change.

Self-efficacy is pivotal since it determines whether “people think pessimistically or optimistically and in ways that are self-enhancing or self-hindering” (p. 10). Perceived self-efficacy tends to determine the causes that people choose to champion, the amount of energy they devote to the initiative, how long they persevere in the face of obstacles, and their level of motivation and initiative.

An Agentic Professional

The very act of joining the Coalition of Museums for Climate Justice suggests that you are an ‘agentic’ professional. This positions you to play an important and intentional role in shaping museums’ capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change. While this may be challenging, there is encouragement in Bandura’s observation that

“the capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one’s life is the essence of humanness.”

Albert Bandura, Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective (p. 1).


Albert Bandura (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26

* Joy Davis worked with the University of Victoria for over thirty years, directing such innovative programs as Cultural Resource Management, Aboriginal Language Revitalization and Intercultural Education. And in her final years at UVic, she took on interim dean or director positions with a range of units including Continuing Studies, University Art Collections, and Community Relations. In her new role as a freelance cultural heritage specialist and in her work with the Coalition, she has an abiding interest in how learning is adapted to meet the situated needs of museums, and in museums’ capacity to respond to changing expectations